- In India, soil had been also classified from the ancient period itself. Although it was not as detail as the modern classifications. Red Soil Supplier Chennai
- But in the ancient period, the classification was based on only two things. Whether the soil is fertile or sterile. Thus the classification were: Wholesale Red Soil Suppliers Chennai
- Urvara [fertile]
- Usara [sterile]
Soil Classification – Agencies involved
- Men started to know about the various characteristics of soil. So they began to classify soil on the basis of texture, colour, moisture etc.
- The Soil survey of India was established in 1956. They studied soils of India and their characteristics.
- The National Bureau of Soil Survey also did a lot of studies on Indian soil.
Major classification of Indian soils
- Alluvial soil [43%]
- Red soil [18.5%]
- Black / regur soil [15%]
- Arid / desert soil
- Laterite soil
- Saline soil
- Peaty / marshy soil
- Forest soil
- Sub-mountain soil
- But it is the most available soil in India (about 43%) which covers an area of 143 sq.km.
- Widespread in northern plains and river valleys.
- In peninsular-India, they are mostly found in deltas and estuaries.
- Humus, lime and organic matters are present.
- Highly fertile.
- Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputhra plain, Narmada-Tapi plain etc are examples.
- But they are depositional soil – transported and deposited by rivers, streams etc.
- So sand content decreases from west to east of the country.
- But new alluvium is termed as Khadar and old alluvium is termed as Bhangar.
- Colour: Light Grey to Ash Grey.
- Texture: Sandy to silty loam or clay.
- Rich in: potash
- Poor in: phosphorous.
- Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, oilseed etc are cultivated mainly.
- Seen mainly in low rainfall area.
- Also known as Omnibus group.
- Porous, friable structure.
- Absence of lime, kankar (impure calcium carbonate).
- Deficient in: lime, phosphate, manganese, nitrogen, humus and potash.
- Colour: Red because of Ferric oxide. The lower layer is reddish yellow or yellow.
- Texture: Sandy to clay and loamy.
- Wheat, cotton, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, potato etc are cultivated.
Black soil / regur soil:
- Regur means cotton – best soil for cotton cultivation.
- Most of the Deccan is occupied by Black soil.
- Mature soil.
- High water retaining capacity.
- Swells and also will become sticky when wet and shrink when dried.
- Self-ploughing is a characteristic of the black soil as it develops wide cracks when dried.
- Rich in: Iron, lime, calcium, potassium, aluminum and magnesium.
- Deficient in: Nitrogen, Phosphorous and organic matter.
- Colour: Deep black to light black.
- Texture: Clayey.
- Name from Latin word ‘Later’ which means Brick.
- Become so soft when wet and so hard when dried.
- In the areas of high temperature and high rainfall.
- Formed as a result of high leaching.
- Lime and silica will be leached away from the soil.
- Organic matters of the soil will be removed fast by the bacteria. As it is in high temperature and humus will be taken quickly by the trees and other plants. Thus, humus content is low.
- Rich in: Iron and Aluminum
- Deficient in: Nitrogen, Potash, Potassium, Lime, Humus
- Colour: Red colour due to iron oxide.
- Rice, Ragi, Sugarcane and Cashew nuts are cultivated mainly.
Desert / arid soil:
- Seen under Arid and Semi-Arid conditions.
- Although it is deposited mainly by wind activities.
- Despite High salt content.
- But it lacks moisture and Humus.
- While Kankar or Impure Calcium carbonate content is high which restricts the infiltration of water.
- Nitrogen is insufficient and Phosphate is normal.
- Texture: Sandy
- Colour: Red to Brown.
Peaty / marshy soil:
- Also found in areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity.
- But Growth of vegetation is very less.
- Additionally large quantity of dead organic matter/humus which makes the soil alkaline.
- But Heavy soil with black colour.
- Especially in regions of high rainfall.
- But humus content is less and thus the soil is acidic.
- Also found in the mountain regions of the country.
- Despite being an immature soil with low humus and acidic.
Article Source : GEOGRAPHY NOTES